Sunday, November 29, 2009

Religious Freedom Not a US Priority Toward Allies Egypt and Saudi Arabia

Written by International Christian Concern
25 November 2009

Washington -- A hearing was recently held on Religious Freedom in the Middle East which exposed the failure of the State Department and President Obama to address Human Rights abuses in Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

On November 18, Chairman, Gary L. Ackerman (D-NY), as well as other congress representatives, questioned the Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Michael H. Posner, on the State of Political and Religious Freedom in the Middle East. It was evident that Egypt and Saudi Arabia, both close allies of the US, have not been pressured into compliance with international human rights laws.

Egypt, the world's number two recipient of American aid, having received roughly $1.3 billion per year in military compensation and more than $500 million per year in economic assistance since 1979, blatantly violates international human rights laws without penalty. The responsibility for the sudden surge of persecution against Coptic Christians, an explicit assault on religious freedom, is deliberately dismissed by the Egyptian government.

When Assistant Secretary Posner was asked if measures are being taken to ensure that Egypt is kept liable for its offenses, no strategic plan was presented. It was also concluded that America does not use its foreign assistance as leverage to demand that Egypt adhere to international human rights laws.

In the same way, Saudi Arabia, a government that denies recognition or protection of any religion other than Sunni Islam, and whose constitutional principles are founded on Sharia law, is not held accountable by the US for its human rights abuses.

When asked by Representative Ackerman if the US places any conditionality upon trade with Saudi Arabia or aid given to Egypt in regards to human rights offenses, Assistant Secretary Posner replied, "Has it been done? It's been done… in various ways and various places. Could it be done more? Yes. Should it be done more? Yes."

Aidan Clay, ICC Regional Manager of the Middle East, said, "Avoiding a strategic plan to address the fundamental democratic principles of religious freedom has not been a top priority of the US government toward Egypt for years.

The US is a light to democratic values, and must take the lead in promoting and exporting democratic principles to countries that violate human rights laws. We ask President Obama to develop a strategic plan by applying human rights sanctions on US assistance to Egypt and US dealings with Saudi Arabia, to nominate a Religious Freedom Ambassador, and to affirm human rights as a core objective of US foreign policy."

Egyptian State Security Accused of Cover-up in Muslim Riots

Egyptian State Security Accused of Cover-up in Muslim Riots

Cairo (AINA) -- In an effort to cover up the Muslim mob violence against the Copts which broke out last week in the town of Farshoot and neighboring villages (AINA 11-22-2009, 11-23-2009), and in view of the complete news blackout imposed by the Egyptian government, Egyptian State Security has intensified its pressure on the Coptic Church in Nag Hammadi and the victims of the violence into accepting extrajudicial reconciliation with the perpetrators, and opening their businesses without any compensation. Similar State Security scenarios have been experienced by Copts in all sectarian incidents in the past, in which they always come out as losers, having been forced to give up civil and criminal charges, while the criminals get away scot-free.

"There will be no reconciliation before full financial compensation has been paid to the Coptic victims, and the criminals are brought to justice, so that safety and security can be restored to the district," said Bishop Kirollos of the Nag Hammadi Diocese.

Free Copts reported that Bishop Kirollos has sent his grievance to President Mubarak, the Prime Minister , the People's Assembly and the Shura Council, asking for speedy financial compensation to the Coptic victims.

In solidarity with the affected businessmen, the remaining Farshoot Coptic merchants have closed their shops in protest.

It has been reported that orders were given to the police in Farshoot by Qena State Security not to issue police reports to the victims; instead, they have to travel 60 KM away to make their reports with the Attorney General in Qena. The authorities have not yet carried out estimates of the losses in spite of several demands made by the Church.

It is estimated that 10 pharmacies and 55 shops and businesses in Farshoot, Abu Shousha, Kom Ahmar and el-Aaraky were looted, vandalized and torched, with total losses exceeding 5 million Egyptian Pounds (1 million USD).

State Security has been putting pressure on the Church to convince the victims to open their stores, "despite the fact that they were told that the victims have no money to clean up and decorate their shops after being looted, vandalized and torched by Muslims, nor the money to buy stock," Bishop Kirollos told activist Wagih Yacoub of the Middle East Christian Association (MECA). "Having failed to make me bend to their pressure, State Security has tried putting pressure on the victims, but without success. I told them that no pharmacy or shop will be opened before the rights of my children in the Diocese are fully restored."

Having failed to get results from the Church, State Security has drawn in the help of the area's members of parliament. "They are trying to pacify the people by holding conferences, to make the matter 'go to sleep', so that they would escape paying any compensation to the victims," he commented. "But I am now sending a message to the parliament members: 'If you don't support the Christians, the Christians will boycott the coming elections.' Let them look for someone else to make them win."

People who were forced to attend those conferences said that they were told that having to close down their businesses "does not look good to the outside world, and would harm the reputation of Egypt on the international level."

One other pressure tactic often used successfully by the State Security to enforce its decisions on the Church is taking into custody innocent Copts and using them as "hostages" in what has come to be know as their "Let go and I will let go" policy.

"State Security has taken into custody fours Copts who were victims of the violence, they were told they would be detained until they forfeit their claims and sign a 'reconciliation' note, so as to make it appear as a case of personal differences between individuals," Bishop Kirollos told Free Copts.

A fact-finding commission of rights activists and journalists was refused entry on November 22, 2009 into the affected areas by State Security. "We were escorted to the Farshoot chief detective, Essam Ghanem, who cautioned us not to try to estimate the losses or take photos, and we were asked to leave town, otherwise charges will be brought against us," said activist Rafat Samir. "The pretext they gave us was that we are strangers to the town, and when we asked him who gave such orders, he said it was from a higher authority."

In an interview with Free Copts, Bishop Kirollos said "We gave the authorities the names of two of the perpetrators who are ex-convicts from Farshoot, they arrested then released them. They are the masterminds behind the latest attacks, and their presence presents a danger to us."

Commenting on the deportation of 35 Coptic families from the villages of Kom Ahmar and Ezbet Sherif, he said "State Security told me that they fear for their safety, so I told them why don't you protect them? If they wanted to protect them, they could have easily done that. State Security is mighty. However, after the families left, Muslims looted their homes and completely destroyed two of them."

Many Copts believe that the increase in the deportation of Copts whenever there is a Muslim-Christian incident, is an objective of the government to migrate Copts from Upper Egypt, where they constitute the largest congregations of Christians in Egypt.

The violence that took place in Farshoot and the neighboring villages on November 21, 2009, was prompted by a rumor that the Copt Guirgis Baroumi allegedly sexually abused a 12-year-old Muslim girl. Although the girl's family agreed with the Church to wait for the police investigations, a mob of nearly 3000 Muslims, mainly students from Al-Azhar Institute in Farshoot, incited by their Principal, went on a rampage of looting and burning Coptic-owned properties. "The family of the involved Muslim girl did not join in." Bishop Kirollos told Free Copts.

Coptic Organizations in the Diaspora issued a joint communiqué on November 25, 2009 condemning the attacks on Farshoot and the neighboring villages as well as the role of the State Security for failing to protect the Coptic citizens. The statement appealed to all human rights organizations in the world to join them in condemning the Egyptian government, and in protecting the Christians in Egypt from the war of systematic extermination waged against them, implementing the Wahhabi policy which is "against everything that is non-Muslim."

By Mary Abdelmassih

Swiss voters back ban on minarets

الجمعيه الوطنيه القبطيه الامريكيه

national american coptic assembly
Mr. Morris Sadek-ESQ President
visit&watch our website
Swiss voters back ban on minarets
There are only four minarets in Switzerland
15:48 GMT, Sunday, 29 November 2009 Swiss voters have supported a referendum proposal to ban the building of minarets, official results show.
More than 57% of voters from 26 cantons - or provinces - voted in favour of the ban, Swiss news agency ATS reported.
The proposal had been put forward by the Swiss People's Party, (SVP), the largest party in parliament, which says minarets are a sign of Islamisation.
Opponents say a ban would amount to discrimination and that the ballot has stirred hatred.
The BBC's Imogen Foulkes, in Bern, says the surprise result is very bad news for the Swiss government which had urged voters to reject a ban on minarets, fearing unrest among the Muslim community and damage to Switzerland' s relations with Islamic countries.
Switzerland is home to some 400,000 Muslims and has just four minarets.
This will cause major problems because during this campaign in the last two weeks different mosques were attacked, which we never experienced in 40 years in Switzerland

Tamir Hadjipolu
Zurich's Association of Muslim Organisations

Minaret vote: Your views
Our correspondent says voters worried about rising immigration, and with it the rise of Islam, have ignored the government's advice.
Islam is the most widespread religion after Christianity in Switzerland, but it remains relatively hidden.
There are unofficial Muslim prayer rooms, and planning applications for new minarets are almost always refused.
Supporters of a ban claim that allowing minarets would represent the growth of an ideology and a legal system - Sharia law - which are incompatible with Swiss democracy.
But others say the referendum campaign incited hatred. On Thursday the Geneva mosque was vandalised for the third time during the campaign, according to local media.
Before the vote, Amnesty International warned that the ban would violate Switzerland' s obligations to freedom of religious expression.
'Political symbol'
The president of Zurich's Association of Muslim Organisations, Tamir Hadjipolu, told the BBC that if the ban was implemented, Switzerland' s Muslim community would live in fear.
"This will cause major problems because during this campaign in the last two weeks different mosques were attacked, which we never experienced in 40 years in Switzerland.
"So with the campaign... the Islamaphobia has increased very intensively. "
Sunday's referendum was held after the People's party collected 100,000 signatures from eligible voters within 18 months calling for a vote.
SVP member of parliament Ulrich Schluer said the referendum campaign had helped integration by encouraging debate. He rejected the charge of discrimination.
"Every Muslim is allowed to come together with other Muslims to have the religion together," he told the BBC.
"But a minaret is a political symbol. It is a symbol for introducing, step-by-step, Sharia rights also in Switzerland, parallel to the Swiss law which is a result of Swiss democracy. And this is the problem. It is nothing against Muslims."
To become law, a majority of canton voting districts must approve the referendum result, as well as a majority of voters.
In recent years many countries in Europe have been debating their relationship with Islam, and how best to integrate their Muslim populations.
France focused on the headscarf, while in Germany there was controversy over plans to build one of Europe's largest mosques in Cologne. http://news. 1/hi/world/ europe/8385069. stm

Monday, November 23, 2009

violent on christians in the village of Abou shusha , Egypt

New and urgent) Persecution of Christians of Egypt. Oppressive Bulletin 23/11: new sectarian terrorist incidents in the village of Abu Shusha - Abu _i Center in Upper Egypt. (Muslims Abu _i continue to destroy the stores and property of Christians and the Muslims in solidarity with their sisters فرشوط) in early Monday morning corresponding to 23/11/2009 extended the hands of organized terrorism to the village of Abu Shusha and away from the Nag Hammadi, 25 ... Read more hits in the north far from the recent events in فرشوط There is no justification to those criminal and terrorist acts intended to destroy the property of the Copts, the economy hit in the difficult economic conditions experienced by the country that promptly at two in the morning Vwjioa Copts of the village of Abu Shusha a fire number three shops after being stolen and destroyed just did not get anything from them useful and the two objects Avenue Omar Ibn Khattab St., from the commercial market downtown and firefighters did not attend only one hour after the communication, although it away from the scene, only 8 hits. A number of residents of the village of Abu _i Shehadlitin destroyed and replaced in the village Abu Shusha Abu _i of belonging to one of the Copts, in protest at the security against extradition to the girl's family to take revenge of it. Qena security bodies had received a communication by a number of compatriots in the village of Abu Shusha Shehadlitin burned and destroyed, shops, and engaging in sabotage of the village, for the Copts, confirming for their solidarity with the position of the girl's family to hand over the accused to take vengeance for them. The security services have stepped up their presence in Qena centers in Abu _i and فرشوط and secure their income, and Mforeighm and the use of a large number of security personnel from other provinces, in order to control security and calm the situation, where the local people are engaged in subversive"

Political Correctness and Preaching Religion

few days ago, during the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) meetings in Rome , Libyan president, Gaddafi shows us once again the Arab mentality and methods. The Libyan president, instead of spending time with other leaders discussing world hunger, gathered 200 young Italian women together to preach Islam to them. Gaddafi preached Islam to Christian women in the heart of Christianity.

I am wondering if the same Libyan dictator would allow any western president to preach Christianity in Libya ? Certainly, western leaders would never transform their political trips to any country into preaching about religion, if only for the reason that it’s not their duty. The only real question to ask is why would Gaddafi do this?

Gaddafi is a unique character in the world of Arab leaders. He was born in 1942, and during his early years, grew up with just his mother due to the divorce of his parents. At a young age he pastured camels in the Libyan desert . In 1969, after his completion of military study in Egypt , he led a coup against the Libyan king. For more than 40 years Gaddafi guided the country as its president!

In the beginning of his presidency, Gaddafi expelled the entire Jewish and Italian community, nationalizing their businesses and confiscating their money. He closed the majority of churches, and some churches became animal stalls.

In Rome , Gaddafi placed a deceptive and predatory classified ad using misleading information transmitted via some Italian media. As per Reuters, an Italian advertising agency placed an ad in Corriere della Sera newspaper stating the following:

"Seeking 500 attractive girls between 18 and 35 years old, at least 1.70 meters (5 foot, 7 inches)tall, well-dressed but not in mini-skirts or low cut dresses.”

The ad indicated that each girl would receive $90.00 and a Libyan gift! About 200 women showed up at the address indicated on the advertisement. Instead of a party, the girls found Imam Gaddafi preaching Islam; the gift was the Islamic Quran!

This is clear evidence to the West of how Arabs are trying to take advantage of our democracy. It’s a red flag to those who still believe in so-called political correctness, abstaining from our right to speak out against hypocrisy for fear of offending.

Would the same Gaddafi allow any Christian or member of another faith to preach in his country? Would the same Gaddafi who took advantage of the democracy in Italy where he could say and write whatever he likes have in his own country even 1% of the freedom that the Italian constitution allows? How does Mr. Gaddafi treat those who worship in faiths other than his own?

The West is under attack and no one cares, and the method is very simple; Arabs are not using traditional weapons because they know they would lose with that. Instead, they are using a very dangerous weapon built with oil money from the West. Arabs are using our original democracy and the implementation of political correctness, which tomorrow will become “shut your mouth.”

I do not ask you to agree with my writing, I am merely asking you to use your own mind and open your eyes and decide between democracy and political correctness. It is for you to choose between free will and dictatorship.

The only thing that I am asking is for you to decide soon. We are running out of time.

Dottore Architetto Ashraf Ramelah

Muslim Violence Ongoing in Egypt - Christians plead For Help

Muslim Violence Ongoing in Egypt -- Christians Plead For Help

Farshoot, Egypt (AINA) -- Since early morning on Saturday, November 21, the Upper Egyptian town of Farshoot, as well as the neighboring villages of Kom Ahmar, Shakiki and Ezbet Waziri, has been the scene of ongoing Muslim mob violence against Coptic Christian inhabitants. The mob looted, vandalized and burnt Coptic property, while Copts hid indoors fearing to venture out. Reuters Cairo reported that a witness said "chaos is overwhelming (in the city)."

The Violence is still going on. There are reports that seven Coptic women have been abducted.

Witnesses said that nearly 3000 angry Muslims have congregated since the early morning in front of the Police Headquarters in Farshoot, in an effort to kidnap Girgis Baroumi while being transported to court to renew his detainment, in order to kill him. Bishop Kirollos said it was agreed with the family of the Muslim girl Yousra to await the Court decision "but they did not wait for that."

Coptic priest Rev. Benjamin Noshi was driving his car when the mob stopped and assaulted him, fracturing his skull. He is currently in hospital.

By the evening most Coptic businesses were looted and burnt. "They are destroying the Coptic economy in these areas," says Wagih Yacoub of Middle Eadt Christian Association.

A witness said that some Coptic families were thrown out of their homes, which were occupied by Muslims.

Although security forces were deployed, they are not taking any action to stop the violence, they are stationed to protect the Farshoot police headquarters after the angry mob pelted it with stones before going in and attacking the officers. Chief Investigating Officer Essam Hany was injured along with others.

Witnesses said that the Police watched the mob but made no arrests and were just dispersing the mob from one street, only for them to appear in the next.

The violence was prompted by reports of sexual abuse of a girl by 21 year-old Copt Guirgis Baroumi, from Kom Ahmar, on Wednesday November 18, 2009. The 12-year-old Muslim girl has been identified as "Yousra." Girgis is detained by the police pending investigations and awaiting results of forensics. Many Copts believe that the rape incident is by Muslims to use it as a pretext to start violence against them.

In an interview with Free Copts, Bishop Kirollos said that the attacks were definitely preplanned and made use of the students from Al-Azhar Institute in Farshoot. He also pointed out to the failing role of the security forces, which disappeared without giving proper justifications, despite several demands by the church to put an end to these grave violations against Christians and their property.

He also added that even if the story of the indecent assault on the Muslim teenager was true, this was purely an individual incident and does not call for an attack on masses of peaceful Christians, who denounced this individual act which does not comply with Christian teachings. "So why the barbaric attacks by the mobs? and why have the security forces not stopped them?"

Talking to Coptic News Bulletin, the Bishop said that after being informed of the accusations of the rape on Wednesday, he has taken the frightened Copts of the villages of Kom Ahmar and Shedid out of the village to safety. "However, Coptic-owned businesses, pharmacies and cars in Farshoot and Ezbet Waziri are completely destroyed," he said.

Rev. Elisha, Pastor of St. Michaels Church in Farshoot described Saturday's violence as "similar to the Tartar Wars, they burnt down shops, pharmacies, broke down doors of homes and terrorized the inhabitants." Commenting on the alleged rape incident, he said that it is doubtful, besides prosecution did not allow anyone to meet with the accused Copt. "The Farshoot investigating officer told me that the Muslim girl was only sure that her attacker wore a black jacket -- nothing more."

"We have never been so frightened and humiliated as Christians in all our lives. The mob made wooden crosses and burnt them in the street," according to one witness. "Our religion, and our Lord were openly insulted."

As no one is venturing into the streets, none of the Coptic inhabitants contacted were able to confirm if there were any losses in human lives, or the number of injured.

Bishop Kirollos held an urgent meeting with all Coptic priests in the region, in view of the gravity of the situation. He gave instructions that no Sunday church services would be held on 11/22/09 fearing for the safety of the Christian congregations.

"If the International Human Rights Organizations around the world keep quiet about what is happening to the Copts in Egypt, then they are of no use, they just use slogans, nothing more," one witness lamented.

By Mary Abdelmassih

Tuesday, November 17, 2009

Two sentenced to die over Egypt sectarian killing

Written by Cynthia Johnston
The Washington Post
15 November 2009

Rami atef Khilla

CAIRO (Reuters) - An Egyptian court sentenced two Christian men to death on Sunday for killing the Muslim husband of one of their female relatives who had converted to Islam against the wishes of her family, court sources said.

The brother and uncle of Mariam Atef Khilla were convicted of breaking into her Cairo home in 2008 and spraying gunfire on her family of three, killing her husband and hitting Khilla in her hand. The couple's baby daughter Nora was also wounded.

The death sentence will go to Egypt's state-appointed Grand Mufti for review, the sources said.

Khilla had converted to Islam three years earlier to marry her husband in defiance of her family, security sources said at the time. One source said the woman's brother had asked the couple to divorce so she could return to Christianity, but they had refused.

Christians account for up to 10 percent of Egypt's population and relations with the Muslim majority are usually harmonious. But disputes over land, religious buildings, inter-marriage and conversion sometimes lead to violence.

The killing came shortly after a Christian man was killed in sectarian clashes in central Egypt in which villagers fought each other with guns, bricks and sticks.

Egypt saw its worst Christian-Muslim clashes in decades in 1999 when 20 Christians were killed, 22 other people wounded and scores of shops destroyed in southern Egypt.

In 2006, a Muslim attacker stabbed a Coptic Christian man to death and wounded five others in the northern city of Alexandria, sparking clashes in which one Muslim was killed. Egypt says the attacker was mentally ill.

The oldest Christian community faces harsh new pressures

Michael Binyon, The Times

The first two months of the Coptic new year have been a sombre time for Egypt’s ancient Christian community. The new year fell on the inauspicious date of September 11. And a spate of attacks on this large and downtrodden community by Islamist extremists or villagers giving a religious pretext to petty quarrels have provoked accusations of officially tolerated discrimination and heightened fears that Islamists will be emboldened to undercut the laws that promise religious freedom and legal equality in Egypt.

Clashes broke out in Kafr al-Barbaqri, a Nile delta town, in July after a shopkeeper stabbed a teenager to death in a dispute over an empty soda bottle. The Christian grocer had refused to give the Muslim boy a partial refund, and in the ensuing argument the grocer struck the boy with a knife, leading to his death. Dozens of Muslims went on the rampage, setting fire to the grocer’s house and the one next door, leading to 30 arrests.

A month earlier 18 people were wounded in fighting in a village south of Cairo after a Coptic priest celebrated Mass in his home. In August two Copts were arrested “for security reasons” after reporting to the police that they had been attacked by a mob.

The incidents usually stem from petty quarrels in villages where prejudice against Copts has been growing as the influence of Islamist extremists has eaten away at former tolerance of this religious minority. Copts complain that the State frequently fails to protect their rights, and that some officials actively connive in discriminatory measures against them.

A wave of anti-Coptic feeling prompted the recent mass slaughter of pigs in Egypt, officially sanctioned to stop the spread of swine flu. Many Copts work as rubbish collectors in the big cities, and pigs are used to feed on discarded food and remains. The move appeared to be directed at the Copts while reinforcing the Muslim view of pigs as unclean.

Copts are the oldest and largest Christian community in the Middle East. Representing between 10 and 20 per cent of Egypt’s population of 80 million, they claim descent from the church brought to Alexandria by St Mark during the reign of the emperor Claudius, and call themselves the Church of St Mark. For centuries Copts formed the majority in Egypt, until the advent of Islam in 641, when most were forcibly converted or became Muslims to avoid heavy taxes imposed on them.

Egyptian Christianity was immensely important is settling the direction of the early Church. The pivotal Council of Nicea (AD325) was presided over by Pope Alexander of Alexandria, and took binding decisions on liturgy, Church authority and the date of Easter. Egyptian patriarchs also headed the next two main councils, Constantinople (381) and Ephesus (431).

Some 95 per cent of Egypt’s Christians today belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, with the rest divided between Catholic and Protestant churches that established themselves in the past century. The present patriarch is the 85-year-old Pope Shenouda III, who has led the Coptic Church since 1971.

He recently caused controversy when he plunged into politics by declaring on an Egyptian satellite station that he believed Gamal Mubarak, the son of President Mubarak, would be the perfect candidate to succeed his father. His remarks were seen as a way of currying favour with the man widely tipped to take over from his father soon. But they reflected Coptic fears of the growing Islamist influence in Egypt. Pope Shenouda said that, while he had good official relations with the country’s top Muslim leaders, there were “many tensions” today between Muslims and Copts.

He complained that neither Egypt’s parliament nor its local councils could resolve the conflicts, which led to further problems. His remarks were attacked by some Copts, aware of the growing row over the lack of democratic choice in the likely succession of the younger Mubarak. Some also questioned his right to speak on politics for all his community. Discrimination against Copts has varied over the centuries. They began to prosper, especially in the 19th century, and many were leaders in business and commerce. But their position deteriorated again after the overthrow of King Farouk and during the nationalist rule and socialist measures of President Nasser.

Many senior Copts have been waging a campaign to force the Government to ease the law that prevents them building new churches or even repairing existing ones without special presidential permission. An unofficial strike was staged by some on September 11, when they refused to leave their homes.

The Government recently agreed that repairs could be carried out with permission of the local authority. But it has largely failed to soften unofficial discrimination. However, permission was recently given for the community to open two private television channels, a considerable concession to their calls for more equal broadcasting time.

Muslims complain, however, that Western Christians, especially evangelical churches in America, have been using the Copts and the few Egyptian Protestant churches to proselytise among the Muslim majority.

The issue of changing religion is explosive, and there is widespread anger at attempts at proselytising and numerous instances of Muslims being killed who converted.

Western Christians are accused of using community programmes as a way of spreading Christianity. The Copts reject this, but acknowledge that resentment against Western, especially American, influence in Egypt is growing. In return, Copts claim that in some villages young Coptic girls are kidnapped and forcibly married to Muslims. They say appeals to the authorities to find missing Coptic girls are rarely followed up and that the strong penalties for abduction are not enforced.

This cycle of accusation and counter-accusation has fuelled the growing acrimony and mutual suspicion. As a result many Copts have emigrated, especially to America, where Egyptian Muslims accuse them of influencing Washington’s policy towards Egypt.

The Copts also complain of official barriers to advancement within the state. Copts are not allowed to join the army and few are accepted in government service.

Boutros Boutros Galli, the former UN Secretary General, is a Copt. But in Egypt he never rose higher than acting Foreign Minister. His brother Peter is currently one of only two Copts in government.

Complaint from an Egyptian Monk to Voice of the Copts

From: fr,aghabeos el-moharkee []
Sent: Sunday, November 15, 2009 3:16 PM
To: Ashraf Ramelah
Subject: Re: Voice of the Copts


Dottore Architetto Ashraf RamelahPresident

GOD BLESS YOU AND ALL YOUR FAMILY , I ASK GOD TO GET YOU Successful, such as FATHER Joseph in all your hands work .

thank you very much that your organization interest in our case , i pray to god that give you power to help any one ask your help , any way , thank you again , that you trust in our case ,,, no one here in egypt even our church as coptic orthoxdox , told us that they can't do any thing , so no one aftergod can help us , i hope that you try to make this case with every one interest in human right matter or have mercy in his heart , but last ask , please clear zaky information from the web , we don't need another proplem with security leader here... the matter here more bad every day ... one last ask .. try not send it to any egyptian authorities , or newspaper . The case was banned from publishing + will not leave us if they do not know who did this. we need support from out side ,,, because from inside , the case is closed as i told you .. no one trust us , last thing ... thank you so much ...

Saint Marry monastery - Assuiet - Egypt

Father / Aghabeos El-moharkee

priest - monk

2009/11/15 Ashraf Ramelah

Dear Father Aghabeos Elmoharkee;

Thank you for sending your compliant to Voice of the Copts.

Please be sure that this organization would do every thing possible to spread your compliant world wide.

The complaint was posted in our web site see link below. Also I am planning to send out to all political leaders around the plaint as well as to newspaper and journalists.


I will cry unto God most high; unto God that performeth all things for me.
(Psalms 57:2)
Complaint to
Voice of the Copts
Urgent Case About
Zaky Samier Zaky's
Case ( Egyptian Christian Coptic)
CASE NUM 90 / 2009, in Abdeen Palace ,
The presidency of Republican-CAIRO-EGYPT.
- The Egyptian Interior Ministry
- Egyptian state security service
.Violation of the rights of the Coptic Christian minority in Egypt .
.Racial persecution in the treatment to Coptic Christians in Egypt .
By his uncle
Father / Aghabeos Elmoharkee
Priest monk
CONTACT CALL: 002 0198933462 002 0198933462
FAX: 00202-26907184
E mail:




I complaint and protest about the Violation and the breakthrough that come from:

•The optional protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
•International Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.
•Convention against Torture.

The complaint's details:

•Name: Father \ Aghabeos El Moharkee.
•Priest monk at St. Mary Monastery
•Assuiet - Egypt .
•First name(s): Father \ Aghabeos
•Nationality: Egyptian.
•Date and place of birth: 5 - MARCH - 1962, EGYPT .
•Address or current whereabouts: St. Mary Monastery - Assuiet - Egypt .

I am complaining due to what happens to my family. We are under attack from a Muslim Egyptian Drug Dealer supported by the Egyptian security Leaders, Egyptian state security service; many of political leaders in the Egyptian government, but no on help us.

They knew everything about our case, & how this drug dealer (Mohamed Abd Al-Fattah Shiha) & his famous name is (Said Shiha) RECORDED AS A risky man by the Egyptian Ministry of Interior, He stole my sister's son (ZAKY SAMIER ZAKY)'s Property (Apartment building contains from 4 Floors & 8 Apartments) valued with millions Egyptian Pounds.

ZAKY is missing from 5 Sept. 2009. He escaped to make his family far from troubles. So I make this complain because I severely affected from that matter.

1 - I received a threatened call from unknown people (a private number) to kill me.



4 - Inflame sectarian strife, as we are a minority Coptic Christians & THEY ARE Muslims& THAT IS the majority.

5 - WE HAVE SOUGHT IN EACH TRENDS, WENT TO EVERY Egyptian competent to return our stolen powers, and protect us, BUT NO HOPE, NO ONE WANTS TO LISTEN TO OUR VOICE.

6- THEY KNEW BY THE Official reports & formal complaints provided that was announced by:


7- LAST THING I KNEW THAT ZAKY was severely beaten in the Qalyoub CITY IN UPPER EGYPT, struck a painful hurts, but it didn't leave marks, he was HURTED by the men of State Security, he knew that, BECAUSE THEY BOARDED THE SAME CAR (NUMBER No. 982 sbl Egypt) THAT HAD TAKEN THE LAWYER \BAHER ZAKY FAHMY, by FORCE TO Egyptian state security service.

8- MANY OF THE EGYPTIAN LAEDERS IN THE GOVERNMENT KNEW EVERY THING BUT THEY MADE IT Disappeared, AS NOTHING HAPPEN. SO they offered to compromise ZAKY to buy the building and put a certain amount, approved by Zaky, & the amount now deposited at the presidential palace Republican Egyptian - Abdeen Palace .

YOU WILL FIND ALL the case Details at:

•The Presidential palace Republican Egyptian - Abdeen Palace .
•The Egyptian Interior Ministry.
Maybe they will hide the truth or convince you that the case is over. So please ask them:


THEY Knew THAT ZAKY & HIS LAWYER Threaded to be killed a lot of Times AND ALL OF THAT REPORTED Officially. Why &HOW THEY Protected THEM?

ASK THEM, the true fact for why they didn't give ZAKY HIS BUILDING?

IT WILL BE Ethics scandal, political, involved the major political leaders in the Egyptian government, members of the Egyptian parliament as follows:

· (Major General /ABD - ALSLAM RASHAD) Assistant Minister of Interior for the South Corner from Egypt

· (Officer / EMAD ZAKRIA) Sherif of the police station at the ancient Egypt area,

& also he is the Officer of the Egyptian state security service.

•(Major General /Salah al-Baradei) Assistant Minister of Interior that work in the main office to His Excellency the Minister of Interior, At the building of the Egyptian Interior Ministry - Sheikh Rihan STREET ,
•President of the District of Ancient Egypt .
•Engineer, head of housing, construction, Demolition in the District of Ancient Egypt.
All of those people forced ZAKY to leave his right & to ask about the building. So please read carefully what happened to ZAKY in his evocation, he wrote it before missing as follows:

9- I observed a car follow me & its number was (172066 PRIVAT GIZA), it follows me in everywhere, once I got my CAR'S four tires cut, ALL OF THEM IN the SAME TIME Suddenly.

I went to the Egyptian Interior Ministry, to ask about Assistant Minister of Interior, Major General / Salah al-Baradei, to find any solution for that case but they didn’t allow me to meet him, MORE OVER that, THEY denied the existence of any such person in the ministry has that name, my visit was Installed in the file OF the visitors that belong to the Egyptian Ministry of Interior State concerned/Articles violated in Egypt.

Articles of the Covenant or Convention alleged to have been violated:

1- Violation of the rights of minorities - Christians of the Coptic minority are not protected

Against the violence of the Egyptian security leaders.

2- Apartheid based on the principle of religion - racist persecution to the Coptic Christian

Minority - theft Christiana's property.

3- The constant threat of violence and murder, Violation of civil rights, political and security

Of the Christian minority in Egypt .

4- Use of terrorism in the pressure on Christians by leaders of Egyptian security to give up

Their rights, violate the rights of minority Coptic, using a weapon of bloody sectarian of

Violence to terrorize Christians.

5- Violation to innocent citizens, the opportunity for offenders to govern the country

by the name of religion.

6- Violation of personal freedom of the individual, where the continuous monitoring, which has become very significant.- Exhaustion of domestic remedies.

ZAKY made everything to return his right & to protect his family, but no hope.

He sent TO EVERY LEADER IN EGYPT EVEN TO the President of the Republic of Egypt .



They called the security authorities for protection but nothing happen & ZAKY is still wanted to be haunted TO KILL.


BUT TO ME AS I am HIS UNCLE, I WENT TO the Egyptian Interior Ministry BUT NO ONE Wants TO HELP ME & THEY denied knowledge of the case. HOW IT CAN BE? I just ask when any human get harm, he can't go to the Security leaders TO BACK HIM HIS Rights.

ZAKY WAS IN THIS CASE FROM SEVEN YEARS AGO & didn't give up. But no one think that the matter will up to the point of murder.

I SENT TO U.S EMBASSY ONCE AFTER Zaky's MISSING, but also no hope.




WE DON'T HAVE any body to protect us except god.

What is this life..??!!!! That full of humiliation and degradation, slavery times.





- Facts of the complaint:

I attached the documents that will make you understand better than I do & it is one by ARABIC & the other by ENGLISH.

AND ONLY HIS REQUEST, TO return HIS RIGHT AND the Compensation for the stolen building for five years.



The documents will make you understand better than I do & you will find Final court rulings provided for the demolition of the building, the reason there was a risk the survival of the building, does not fit. There is a demolition permit, Zaky mined according to the implementation of judicial rulings.



2 – Introduce by father, Aghabeos Al Moharkee.

3 – Another translate by Arabic, for introduce.

4- Complaint by zaky samier, original copy.

5 – Another translates by Arabic for complaint.

6 – Photo copy from original one to all documents showing out legal right by Egyptian court.

7 – The last S. O. S was wrote by zaky , he send it to one of his friend, asking him to apply what happened with him from torture .





Demand, which depend on the arm of human beings?



HOW I WENT To human right organizations AND it doesn't HELP me, I sent many times and no respond?


I ASK FOR MERCY. I DON'T ASK Punishment for those who made mistakes in our RIGHT OR STOLE US.



I BROUGHT HIM , SO HE is a PART OF My soul , he is just 27 old , more over his health not good to Possibility of stalking, beaten , threatened with death, perhaps mature adults do not tolerate this torment .


Please put an end for THIS Tragedy.

NO ONE ALONE CAN FIGHT Government corruption.

NO ONE ALONE CAN FIGHT the most powerful Egyptian security services such as the Egyptian state security service. AS ZAKY Description HIMSELF by:






CONTACT CALL: 0198933462

FAX: 0020226907184


Latest events, update to complaint

Incidents still troubled, but zaky Returned at 24-oct-2009 in poor health, tired of escape. He was escape from 15-sep-2009, Threaded by kill & all his family so he runs away.

There are rumours spread that Zaky and his family had received compensation payments equal to three million dollars for the house,
This did not happen and we Zaky's family deny this news.
Did not receive any of us any amount, from any government or non-governmental organizations, foreign or national.
Is still the case in the presidential palace Abidin Republican?
We want to help resolve this crisis heinous act.
Zaky dying, the case is now in your hands now where your help?
The case file number in the presidential palace Abdeen:
Case file Zaky Semier Zaky Simman, No. 90 / 2009
I hope the human right organizations to assist in the disbursement of the amount of real estate rapist, estimated at four million and a half Egyptian pounds, online Abdeen Palace, the presidency of Republican.
Please help us to end this crisis.
+ Support full protection to zaky Samier zaky Simman.
All of us observers as zaky's family I am a father/ AGHABEOS EL-MOHARKEE, priest monk, Zaky's uncle, monitored by a person named Amr Ismail, threatened me more than once declared his identity ,that he is officer in The Egyptian supreme security threatening me with death if Zaky was not enough to claim for his right from them.
By name of god where you are? You must help us, we have sent to you more than once, by mail, and e-mail, fax where you are.
We trust in your help, where are you?

we need help soon .. no one here in Egypt can help us , no lawyer want to defend or case , they afraid from The state security service , as they make with last lawyer they make more with any one think to defend or case .

no one after GOD can help us here to get or money from Republican Presidential Palace - Abdeen - Cairo .

if they deny every thing or tell you that the case is finish & zaky take his money, ask them for any Official document proves that claims.

all of that is fake , no one take any money or signatures for any documents from zaky's family , even zaky him self . they Lie to make you go away thinking that all the matter are end or I am illusion all that , and nothing true from all my story , by name of the GOD , how can one man fight The most powerful Egyptian security services - the state security service.

only I ask for help to end this case by taking my money from Republican Presidential Palace - Abdeen - Cairo & protection for me as young man Face political persecution.



to end this case from there side as Egyptian government or security leaders , they offered to zaky by e-mail a solve for his case if he leave his Christianity but in secret and Convert to Islam, more over that they Spreading rumours within the Coptic Orthodox church, said Zaky secretly converted to Islam and married, fathered a child, then returned to Christianity, so to punish him, stole the apartment building to create that case, So they did all this discipline, and then get rid of it him , so when Christians leaves zaky, the Muslims would kill him, for that the church Coptic Orthodox rejected to defend with zaky his case , they believes all these lies about zaky , because government want to close this case for ever so they make fake document to view zaky as Muslim man left his Christianity to marry Muslim girl , all that fake, this is the mystery for this case , so they hidden every document , tell every one ask from any human right organizations that every thing is end and zaky take his right , case is close . I sent many times to The U.S. State Department, asking help because they interest in Coptic case in Egypt as Minority, but the wonder that Egyptian government told them that every thing is ok and case is solved , and zaky take back his right & his family , attached to you the document that The U.S. State Department sent it to me by mail told me that case is solved , how it solved and we still under attack , now I tell all the world that me father / Aghabeos El-moharkee , zaky's uncle, that Zaky was born as Christian and lived as Christian all his past live and his present now and until his end will die as Christian man with honour, you could ask about him in his church , he was brought there as any Christian child in Egypt in Sunday school , ask his friends , ask his confession priest father/ David lamahe. Zaky lived his life in this church serves the poor children , teach them , feed them , clean them , so how he be as they lie . no differentiate between Muslim and Christian for zaky. he was serve all body, any one ask for his help , he loved every body. please save him by name of Humanity, compassion, kindness, democracy, justice. and at last but still the first by name of god we pray to him all the world , what ever was your religions . still god have a privet name , mercy . so all religions believe in god's mercy . so show to us mercy please .

save us , soon , help us to back our right .





CONTACT CALL: 0198933462

FAX: 0020226907184




I am / Zaky Samier Zaky Sama'an. Egyptian Christian Coptic citizen

The Egyptian government takes from me my human rights as a human and steals my right by fomenting sectarian strife.

I and my family Threatened with death

And no one helps us, but they help a Muslim man deals in drugs to steal our rights and threatened us by death so …

I make a complaint to you dear sir, to lift the injustice done to me & my family, as we have the property at:
3 khalat Al-Roda Street . Manial - section ancient Egypt , CAIRO , EGYPT (I own a building and composed of, four-storey buildings, containing eight apartments). Was issued a final ruling with demolition until the earth's surface and evacuate residents because there is imminent danger on their life ... And attached the papers and documents that approve all what I said.

On 19 - Jan -1987 issued a committee, formed of ancient Egypt , headed by District Resolution No. 7 of 1987 on the property to No. 3 Manial - khalat Al-Roda Street . Section ancient Egypt , which included the demolition of the property until the entire surface to the earth, and they must evacuate residents immediately.

That is due to the seriousness of its condition, the decision was. & it announced To Whom It May Concern in 02 - Feb - 1987.

in 09 - Feb - 1987, residents of the property to appeal under case No. 2031 of 1987 civilians south of Cairo, all 10 appeals before the Trial.
And in Mar -19-1987 a portfolio of documents including an official copy of the report belong to the Office Ministry of Justice in the appeal No. 1516 to year 1976 and sentenced to a hearing in Nov -31-1985 firm that there were no hope to repair the building, which the contested decision and back to that cause needs to demolished seriousness.

On Apr-18-1988 X-Trial Chamber issued a ruling to refer the case to one of the specialists from the Ministry of Justice task of governing to perform the mission and set out the preliminary.
On dec-19-1987 was deposited with the expert report in which it concluded the same result.... Requiring the demolition of building with entire surface to ground immediately, for the appearance of a lot of damages, by that it became the second report decided more needed to end the destruction Building by grave for seriousness.

In Feb-22-1990 X Appeals Chamber issued its decision to reject the appeal and support the theme of the contested decision.

Resumed the real estate residents of this provision by the resumption of a restricted number of years 4043 number 107 BC before the Chamber, which considered 24 civilian resume Cairo, by hearing on May -12 -1990 over the refusal to issue a ruling by the provision and support of the appellant.

At the end, the decision became final and totally demolished by the above provisions that supporting It.

Been a challenge under this provision in the form No. 2325 to 1993 the implementation of Cairo and urgent

Consideration to the urgency to be Third Division, which concluded in its ruling, issued in Apr-27-1994 TO reject the complication & continue the implementation.

So this rule had become final and not to be irreversible.

Egypt issued a district on the dated at

May -6 -1993 correspondences addressed to the Department of Ancient Egypt to work in speedy implementation by ordered back to the final ruling, where there is imminent danger on their lives, so they must leave immediately, fearing to happen anything risky on their souls .

for that, the building evacuated from the residents that lives in it, then it raped by other drugs users to force us by sectarian sedition and control of the property by one man named Mohammed Abdel-Fattah Shiha, and his famous name was Said Shiha , he was recorded as a risky man by the Ministry of Interior, claimed to be linked to the Governor of Cairo and Cairo's security director, threat us that there will be no force on earth that can demolish the Building, using a weapon of sectarian strife and thuggery, convincing us that we are Christians, we do not have the rights in this country to ask about it , and because they are Muslims have all rights to take our Property , more over that we do not have protection from his fire attack .

I went to the District of ancient Egypt, who was cooperative with us at the beginning, was issued a license based the demolition of the property take number 24 for 2007 issued by district to ancient Egypt and the district was sent with correspondence to the head police station of ancient Egypt to implementation the resolution at

Jun-24-2008, but station did not act to implement the provisions, claiming that it was not on its jurisdiction.

When I returned back to the district of ancient Egypt , I found something very strange that occurred in the housing department stopped the demolition permit, more over I found a report by female engineer called ( saher ) worked at ancient Egypt Housing District in which she claimed that

building should be dismantled & it must be fixed by the owner , uploads all criminal and civil liability on him so she recommended to stop the demolition permit , forgotten judicial rulings and reports of experts men that work in Ministry of Justice, or as if it were not .... How this happens that the housing district of ancient Egypt issued two contradictory decisions in the same time??

So I start to doubt with myself, that I standing in front of a case I can't handled it because I didn't know any cause to corruption the beneficiary, then Mr. Director of Housing asked me to bring to him a certificate from the court that they had no veto power and the demolition of

Evacuation, promised to end the crisis, beginning to make the implementation of the demolition permit that will have been extracted from the Court of Cassation of

May -12-2009.
Once again refer to the conversion of the Section of Legal Affairs, which did not do anything complicated, but it was convincing us that he had issued a written ordered from the Governorate of Cairo Citizens Services Section, in

Collaboration with a member of the Administrative Control Authority, the content on the fly at half-mast and the building had no need for demolition and all of them were mistaken when they gave me a demolition permit and that had written from the Governorate of Cairo No. 750 on Apr -5 -2009, to leave the building at the Governorate of Cairo to inquire the building resolution to the public administration to serve the citizens, I didn't find anything refer to this number completely but when I questioned about it I didn't find any report talked about this matter, so the question remained here, why did the district of ancient Egypt do that & for whom the benefit?

When matter get hard , I went to the presidency of Abdeen Palace , the office of citizens services to make another complaint
May -9 - 2009 has been transferred to the Office Central Administration belong to the Office Governor of Cairo from Abdeen Palace No. 2932, dated May -10-2009, so when referring to the central administration had sent me to the Office of the citizens services, they gave me number 106 / a. M by date May / 11 / 2009, went to the Department of Citizens Services, which tolled me that the complaint went to the district chief in ancient Egypt , In an envelope written on it(secret & personally) So no one see that except him for seriousness of the content, and it had been issued this letter No. 1474 dated May -14-2009
District of ancient Egypt, when I returned back to the inquiry by the Department of Housing I didn't find anything of legal affairs, MORE OVER HE convinced us that there was nothing called a secret and personal envelope SENT TO THE PRESDENT OF ANCHINT EGYPTION, OR any OTHER letters addressed to the President of District of ancient Egypt were aware of it, they did nothing of the maintain this benefit and even connect to the preservation of a resolution of

APR-28-2009 according to review they will reconsider the matter & had a tendency to half-mast the building. I can't found this resolution to maintain the look of the building.

I had submitted a complaint to several organizations and nothing happened, but only I went to the police station in Heliopolis - Cairo - Egypt, they call me to hear my witness about my Complaints that I sent them directly: one to the Office of the President of the Republic No. 76 / u dated at year 2009, and other directly to the Ministry of the Interior numbered by sections 983 , you have the work of administrative record number 364 for the year 2008 , the Department of Ancient Egypt and nothing had happened in the petition of the Attorney General No. 802 dated in year 2008 and also there had been nothing, but what had happened was only a phone conversation from a person named Maj. Gen. Abdel Salam Rashad, Assistant Interior Minister for the South Cairo, asked me to go to the police station at Ancient Egypt to look into my complaint for trying to settle the matter amicably, to end this matter that I gave it the Ministry of the Interior .

He informed me that there was neither paper nor document to this issue in the Department police station in Ancient Egypt, and the sheriff did not know anything about this case, in spite of I editing my complaint to this Department police station at Ancient Egypt, & also I filed a complaint to the administrative control that presenting it with myself to the complaints office of control in May -19-2009, I was told that all things were presented to the Deputy Governor of the western area from Cairo city, for making him to decide what will happen about this case, but I didn't receive a any response after that, so I went to the office of the deputy governor of the western area of Cairo city that existing at

The compounds Liberation (ground floor) inquire about the complaint its administrative control sent to them DIRECTLY, I found that the Office of the Vice-governor did not know anything about the objective and they didn't receive anything related to me from the Administration Control from near or far, and it is still pending.

In this time I didn't know, to whom I will have returned to implementation the documents?? I went to the Al-Ahram newspaper, it is our local nationality newspaper, after I had grown bored with all wrong things happened to me in this case, published ... Addressed , urgent S.O.S to the Prime Minister and the Minister of Interior, dated Mar-25-2009, but nothing happened .

I advanced many complaints to those interested or have authority in my case , but still no action or any sign that I talked to them , annex in the end of this complaint copy from the treatment belong to Egyptian Post have many leaders names , which I wrote to them my complaints , and sent it by post mail .

I got contacted by my attorney from the State Security Service to attend an agreed-upon security of the State Building in the Sahel Street (Shubra) Cairo - Egypt ,

to Discuss the matter based in a complaint I had been made it from early a year ago addressed to the Minister of Interior, discuss the content of the complaint , testimony him to know what has been reached ... so my lawyer went on time to meet Mr. / Emad Zakaria (state security police officer), it was a friendly interview to discuss the matter, where and what of the corruption and dishonesty in the scrutiny of documents submitted by us and covered up on the subject by certain quarters would be adversely affected if it has appeared , and the worst thing that he had discovered the document's case incidentally. In the investigation with another case was had no relation with our case, as he told us, so he took the case to investigate it after year as I sent it , at the end of the meeting he asked about the demands we are asking for ..... ?

MY lawyer asked for just our legitimate right restore property get off the hand of the rapists , no more than that ... but we surprised when the police officer proposed another solution or alternative one offered from the one hostile to the authorities, our enemy offered by Muhammad Abd al-Fattah Shiha (nickname: Said Shiha) risk registered drugs dealer, he asked to buy the building at this condition it look like , no problem with that, to end this crisis, really it was nice offered to end this case soon , but officer asked a clause deadline for two weeks from the date of the interview, which was approved on Saturday jun-20-2009 , but we don't get anything, just waited and nothing happened.

once again the same police officer named / Emad Zakaria called us by the phone to give the enemies another five days deadline because the situation with the crisis was so hard & very bad that government leader with security leaders can't protect us or make any thing because this man against us -drugs dealer- very power and have many strong friends out side Egypt more dangers than our government, which wants to buy the property, working on the preparation of the amount, by the way untilled this time we not offered any price officially or agreed upon good deal between us , but all the contractors is that given the deadline for consideration for the sale , to the buyers is more than just look at the matter and agree on the rest to other transactions , until the date of sale and actual lifting the litigation as solution , but nothing happened and also passed more than five days for second time, suddenly my lawyer found a private telephone conversation at 09:00am on Saturday,Jul-9 - 2009 to find Mr. / Emad Zakaria asked him to attend immediately to the head quarters of State Security .. at this time my lawyer apologized for the audience and promised to postpone to another time because he was in Investment Authority building , Nasr City worked to end some of his own ... The police officer refused, declaring that he knew where he was and people are coming now to take him, so for your safe, you go with them or you will see bad things from them , it was something like threading by using power , leaving his vehicle in a position of opposition territory , and that what happened … some men got the lawyer from there to ride type of vehicle as Chevrolet (optra) No. 982 sbl Egypt … It was also not aware of the visit until he found himself in a secure state building, located in Nasr City ... To met the same personal.

Mr. / Emad Zakaria (state security police officer)

at that time was a little obstinate, thick in the style of talked way , showed to my lawyer that we weren't the real owners or had rights to ask about the building, he asked my lawyer to Wait another five days, but lawyer refused the lack due to his not confidence in all the matter ... The police threatened by forced us to wait or it will be not good days for us , more over that we can

not do anything, our adversaries strong and had strong ties with government Authority as they protected and promoted, so his friends more power and we can't able to do the right thing for them , for that there was no hope to get building back.

and for our record too , the private attorney mobile phone and my one too I had Eavesdropping from certain security agencies, said the previous summary of conversations that have been said on the phone between me and my lawyer , the lawyer Asked why he treated like stolen men had no rights ?

Mr. Emad didn't find a better answer except he said, this was the only way to pull you and your client by force as doges, then the interview was ended as it started. this time was strange , for what happened after this met directly with me , at the same time, that my lawyer was in the state security building at nasir - city, I received a message in my mobile devised in announcement about villas for sale in Sheikh Zayed City according to a company called (al gera ) and that the prices of the villas started from the one million and half thousand Egyptian pounds , so it was clear to me , Shiha and his power friends offered a bargaining chip in exchange for a villa in this region with the knowledge that the price of square meter to my land in that region of space not less than five and fifty thousand pounds for the meter, which makes the price of the land after demolition are equivalent to approximately how many million Egyptian pounds as land located in the front of the Nile shore .

Unless week passed about this event, found threat to my lawyer, Baher Zaki , On his cellular phone from an unknown number, threatening by death and exposure to his children If he didn't leave this issue for ever and forget it , this was only warning, and if he continue working with me, he will be dead and his children also .

My Lawyer has proved what happened with him in the official record take number 45 civil status in the security of the State Building in nasir city - CAIRO - EGYPT , THEY promised to take necessary for this case to end the matter, but nothing had happened.

But more over them still ongoing death threats and exposure to us.

At State Security headquarters in

La- Zawgly Complaint was filed by my lawyer, hopping to end the crisis as soon as possible during the five days from the date of filing of the complaint but more than weeks Passed and nothing happened …

The strange thing here that almost leaders in security we have met them knowing about the matter, all of it …and how seriousness of the situation, know that this issue no more than corruption case before it is a major cause of the dispute over the property and didn't give a helping hand, when we went to the Office of the Minister Interior did not extend a helping hand either but more over they denied every thing belong to this case.

We didn't know for whom these benefit, as waste time, waste of little value ... And how long the right will be lost, despoiled? And how long will the hands of corrupt and authoritarian scattered around the neck of the ordinary of us ordinary people?

How long will power and corruption are two sides of one coin?

How long will the drug dealers sheltering corrupt leaders of the security without a champion for the weak?

Dangers thing that this drug dealer use religion of Islamic as weapon... Against us...he knew very well that was the only weapon he can win with it... As we were Christians Coptic from long time in Egypt have no rights TO defend ourselves!! Government leaders not care for us!! , Live or die!! Not matter to them!! So they accounted us as slaves and we belonged to them in any time they need it.

I requested you to consider the complaint with compassion and kindness as I am a young man at a young age more need to this money as my right, for beginning my life as any man in my age, I will not keep secret from you, my partners in that building are the sons of my uncles and they orphans, with the widowed mother they more need to money to not ask as Beggars and they can have enough as they have from right. .. Therefore, It is a tragedy to find the right pillaging of brute by name of religion and power, and they are innocent of this sin , but the characters psychologically ill criminals have made our lives hell , we are threatened, the legal wrangling had exhausted all of the family, the documents cost us a lot of money and do not know how to compensate In this crisis, the grinding, so save us from this mass and before our right loss , We had a long time in this problem and do not know what to do. so even our right come by your help to us, it will be no mean in front of all this time can Use this money to help us or make us better if we get our building from that time , it is more than ten years … so beside our right we ask your kind to get us. Appropriate , compensation for all this time we lost in the loss of our right from our government , and unfortunately, our distinguished government failed us, here I mean vulnerable people that sold their conscience to the devil to take what is not right to them … steal it by name of Religion and power , with Bullying , so in end after pray for god to help us … ask your government / organization / foundation is defined by the noble it is to help the vulnerable, and particularly of religious minorities in Islamic countries, and I'm shame that I consider myself a minority, because I am an Egyptian citizen with full rights and I am one of the people of that country I was born and lived on this land and All my friends are Muslims, but I suddenly felt severe persecution attack us, destroy myself and my family, and there is no saviour, I plead with you by the name of humanity and by the name of democracy, which has been put forward in the equality of all people, that you will help me to recover my rights denied and indemnify us for the tragic loss , need protection too, finally thank you all ,

Introduction to Your Excellency

Zaky samier zaky Sama'an

Coptic Egyptian citizen

National Identity: 28206170100657

Tel: 0198933462

Address: 17a Al- Shreef Street , FLOOR 1, flat 4, Heliopolis, Cairo , Egypt .


Note: attached to the letter....

1- Copy of the title to the property.

2- A copy of the report of experts of the Ministry of Justice Office south of Cairo, which considered the issue No. 1516 of 1976 south of Cairo.

3- A copy of the report of experts of the Ministry of Justice which considered the case No. 2031 of 1987 south of Cairo.

4- A copy of the preliminary ruling, on Fep-22-1990

5- A copy of the appeal on Des-5-1990.

6- For a copy of the veto or not.

7- A copy of the forms on Apr-27-1994.

8- A copy of the sender of the letter of ancient Egypt to the District Police Department of Ancient Egypt

9- Picture of the demolition of No. 7 of 1987 dated Jan-19-1987.

10- picture of the demolition permit No. 24 for the year 2007

11- Form of a letter transmitted by the District of ancient Egypt to ancient Egypt Major Section
on Jan-24-2008.

12- A copy of the certificate issued by the Court of Cassation on the lack of a reversal of the sentence so far, on May-12-2009

13- A copy of the treatment indicate the Egyptian-mail sent to her complaints

14- A copy of a notice of distress in the Al-Ahram, news paper on Mar-25-2009 addressed to the Prime Minister and the Minister of Interior....


DEAR Excellency Mr /

I hope to be in good health

Summary of complaint


1 – Violation of human rights.
2 - Violating the rights of minorities.
3 - Death threats, attempted murder to me.
4 - Rape full residential property, theft of property Estimates cost millions from Egyptians pounds.
5 - The discovery of the biggest corruption case involving an Egyptian security leader & government leaders.
6 - Egyptian state security service recognized Seriousness of the case and its political and religious, the failure of all security chiefs in resolving the crisis.
7 - A drug dealer known registered danger in the Egyptian Interior Ministry, Drug dealer, using the slogan Islamic religion to hide him self, bullying, violence, death threats. His own country, we Christians slaves.
Regrettably, the Egyptian government & security chiefs, supported him , more over involved with him too in drug deal, no one heard me, did not help me, I went to all the leaders responsible for the recovered my right, there is no point .... Seven years have passed, I discovered the fact about drug dealer matter, so he gave the order to kill me & all security leader follow me from place to place, now I am threatened, fugitive, hunted, from town to town in Egypt, everyone shut the door in my face, Christians afraid from Authorities, Muslims refuse to protect one be enemy to there Islamic religion, what is the solution? I went to USA Embassy from about month ago , give letter directly to the ambassador of USA to protect me but no hope until now ...
I am just a young man thirty years old, life rejected me, just left in a trap, please, BY the name of humanity and Christianity, Do something....
Now I do not have anything, seized property worth millions of Egyptian pounds, seven years of psychological torture, the loss of all my money in bribes to extract the necessary documents, where the house is not fit for living has published a demolition of the Egyptian court, now became the largest centre for the sale of drugs in all Egypt .
If you want to know the truth, the case file in the building of the Egyptian Interior Ministry, in a secure building of the Egyptian state, them will try to ignore it, , not confessed to the crime, it's a major corruption case, if spread, many famous leader will falling down .
Media scandal,
So I ask
For protection & good compensate for my losses suffered, and the monument, the threat of murder.
They threat my lawyer too … all of that and our EGYPTION government know every thing, but no one help me or my family either.
Important point
I am just ill man too... Needs medical care soon or my health will go down.
If any thing happens to me... they kill me maybe, tell my family please, and try to publish my story to the world, to discover the tragedy of my life, hoping this letter reach you before the ends of my life …
Thank you sir,
Introducing to you:

Zaky samier zaky

Tell: 0198933462
Christian Coptic Egyptian

Try to tell every human right organizations , united nation for human right , the defender of human right in all the world , let them know about me , about man … found all the world against him .
I against world …
New part: 11-Sep-2009
Latest news
On 7/Sep/2009 I found e-mail from a stranger, opened the email, perhaps help, but I found the death threats and more than 45 video
Clip, showing Egyptian security men torture for Christians, dead and mutilated, the message was clear and disgusting, but now:
What had happened was the greatest threat, I am writing you this email and I'm almost dying, pain all over my body fill, have found a vehicle parked at both sides of the road, in the town of Qalyoub in Egypt, I'm still a fugitive, I am an observer, but now everything is finished, three men came down from a vehicle have a License plate number: Egypt lbs 982. that's all I can remember, threatened me that if I did not shut up or quieted they will kill me, they beat me so badly I nearly died at their hands, promising the next time will be my last, and that all messages sent by my family and I'm not useless, they are observers web, do not call anything up to myself and more than that, their statement that America will not help me, they cursed Christians like me, and I can not wait to help start, but ask for death
..... Mercy please...
Wrote this section by a friend ... After a phone call from Samier ... Please take appropriate action if possible to save him and inform the human rights organizations concerned , Save zaky samier zaky. By name of God. Save him.

a photo copy from e-mail was sent to me from Secretary Clinton,
The U.S. State Department.

Thursday, November 12, 2009

Egyptian Christian Man Attacked By Mob for Frequenting A Muslim Brothel

Egyptian Christian Man Attacked By Mob for Frequenting A Muslim Brothel
(AINA) -- A state of fear has gripped the Christian inhabitants in the Upper Egyptian town of Mallawi after a Muslim mob tried to kill a Christian man for frequenting a Muslim-run brothel. Christian inhabitants are staying indoors, have closed their businesses, and are keeping their children -- especially girls -- away from schools. They fear wide-scale Muslim violence against them, similar to the violence which took place against Christians in Dairout on October 24,2009. (AINA 10-27-2009).

The latest incident in Mallawi was prompted when a Muslim mob learned of the presence of a Coptic man inside a Muslim-run brothel. A group of Muslims broke into the brothel, dragged him to the streets where he was stabbed 16 times. "Acid was thrown on him, before being stabbed. He was taken to Minya General Hospital where his condition is still very critical," said Wagih Yacoub of Middle East Christian Association.

The 23-year-old Copt Mina Emad Shoyeb was taken by the Muslim driver Mohamad to a brothel run by the Muslim widow, Ragaa Mosaad Ismail, together with two Muslim prostitutes, 23-years-old Eyman Ismail Abdelmalik, and 25-years-old Maha Kamel Aly. According to Copts United Mohamed had agreed on a fee of 200 Egyptian Pounds for the services of one of the prostitutes, Maha, but decided later that he wanted to pay only half of that amount, an offer Maha refused. The Copt Mina decided to pay the full fee. Mohamad left the brothel, and enticed the neighborhood Muslims to revenge for their honor for harboring a brothel in their midst, which is frequented by Christians. This prompted Muslims to congregate, break into the brothel and carry out their attack.

Reports coming out of Mallawi said that since yesterday evening, November 10th, several Muslim mobs have been wandering around the town streets, vandalizing and looting property belonging to Christian Copts; State Security forces were called in to contain the situation.

Yacoub also said that business life in Mallawi has come to a stand still and Bishop Dimitrious of the Coptic Orthodox Diocese of Mallawi, Ansena and Ashmonein, advised students in Deir Abu Heness, Deir Barsha and all the areas East of the Nile Delta, to avoid going to school for fear of Muslim repercussions against them.

The Egyptian Newspaper elYom reported there was a conspiracy to entrap the Christian man and then use him as a pretext to attack and loot property owned by Copts, as well building up animosity against them in Mallawi. Copts in Upper Egypt are calling for the resignation of the Governor of Minya, "who has turned Minya into Minyastan." They blame his fanaticism in causing the escalation of attacks and persecution of the Copts in Minya. Governor Dia-uddin was a top State Security official, who has also spent ten years teaching law in a Saudi Arabian university, before taking office in Minya.

In a strongly worded press release addressed to the Minister of Interior, Dr. Naguib Gobrial, President of the Egyptian Union of Human Rights, criticized the state of fear under which the Christian Copts are living, in addition to the vandalism and looting of their property. He criticized the inaction of the Governor of Minya and the failure of the State Security in achieving peace and stability.

Mr. Gobrial reminded the Egyptian government of the February 2010 Universal Periodic Review, and its pending embarrassment in front of the UN Human Rights Council, when it accesses the human rights situation in Egypt, including the religious situation.

By Mary Abdelmassih

Tuesday, November 10, 2009

Discrimination against coptic Christian employees in the American university in Egypt.

Discrimination against coptic Christian employees in the American university in Egypt.

Subject: Discrimination against coptic Christian employees in the American university in Egypt.
As an Egyptian born and raised and a naturalized US citizen I am shocked but not surprised that some Muslim staff and managers at the AUC Cairo is discriminating against Christian staff at the AUC in an effort to Islamize the university which is a standard shameful Islamic behavior that I had experienced myself.
However when it amount to dismissing four Christian employees and what is known now that some whole departments in the AUC has became Christian free department this must not go unnoticed.

The problem with American born individuals who manage the American entities overseas is that they THINK that all nations behave like them and will hire and fire based on efficiency only , overlooking the fact that some Muslims believe it is their duty to rid the world and the work place from the misguided or the one that Allah hate.

It is the AUC image that is on stake as an American and tax payer I would expect the AUC top management to examine the issue considering that incident and others that involve discriminating against Christian employees in the AUC.

The head of security in the AUC is a graduate from police academy in Cairo which only admit less that 1% Christian students while the population of Christian in Egypt is 10 to 15% , do u expect such person to believe in giving equal opportunity to Christian security staff.
Watch the Christian staff whom were fired speaking in that link
student at that one AUC 2009-11-09 22:43:57

I Used To Be a Student at the AUC. AUC, the American University in Cairo has been Iinfected by the virus of Islamis, Arabism and Discrimination. How come this can happen under the American name of freedom and liberty? I wonder that the Islamist epidemic and Jihadist virus will infeltirate AUC as it has infelirated the American Embassy in Cairo. Why the American Embassy in Cairo have been supplying us with the terrorist Islamists sheikhs, Jihadists and Mounagabbat women; Veiled sex slaves of women To the USA. Enough USA to commit self-suicide destroying the Great Western Civilization of Human Dignity

President USA ,

AUC Avenue, P.O. Box ٧٤

New Cairo 11835, Egypt.
Phone: +20.2.2615.1000 +20.2.2615.1000
Fax: +20.2.27957565


United States
New York Office
420 Fifth Avenue
Third Floor
New York, NY 10018-2729
Phone: 212.730.8800 212.730.8800
Fax: 212.730.1600

Name: Mary Corrarino
Department: New York Office
Title: Vice President, Executive Director -New York Office an
E-mail: \"Mary Corrarino\"
Phone: 646.810.9400 646.810.9400 EX: 4522
Building: New York Office
Campus: Remote Site

Italy: Mohammed called a 'paedophile' in TV spat

Written by AKI - Adnkronos International
10 November 2009

MP Daniela Santanche

Milan, 9 Nov. (AKI) - Italian feminist and former far right-wing MP Daniela Santanche has sparked a controversy after calling the Prophet Mohammed a "a polygamist and paedophile" during a TV debate. Santanche appeared on a television programme aired on the commercial channel, Canale 5 with the president of Milan's Islamic centre, Ali Abu Schwaima, on Sunday.

"Mohammed was a polygamist and a paedophile because he had nine wives, one of whom was only nine years old, that is a historical fact," said Santanche.

A former MP for the post-fascist National Alliance party, Santanche now leads the far-right La Destra party.

Her remark incensed Schwaima and Muslims in the audience, who had been invited to take part in a debate on the contentious issue of placing crucifixes in Italian classrooms after last week's ban by the European Court of Human Rights.

"Why don't we talk about serious things, not about your disgusting comments," he shouted at Santanche.

Santanche continued to shout back: "For us, Mohammed was a paedophile."

"You're just showing the ignorance of people like you who have no other arguments to use," bellowed Schwaima, jabbing his finger at her.

He claimed the crucifix should not be removed from classrooms in Italy.

"For us, Christ was one of the five main prophets and we respect him, like the crucifix."

But Santanche was not appeased by Schwaima's remark.

"We will never listen to Mohammed, who was a polygamist and a paedophile," screeched Santanche.

Studio ushers were seen physically restraining an irate, bearded member of the audience from lunging at her.

"I and my staff dissociate ourselves from these comments, which are offensive to Islam," Domenica Cinque's presenter, Barbara D'Urso, said in a statement issued after the programme.

A former MP for the post-fascist National Alliance party, Santanche ran for the lower house of parliament on the far-right La Destra list in last year's general election.

But the party failed to reach the 4 percent threshold required for election to the parliament.

Santanche was last year among rightwing protesters who opposed the conversion of a former velodrome into a mosque in Milan.

She opposes Muslim women wearing the veil in Italy and has called for a referendum to reopen the country's brothels.

Aisha was believed to be nine-years-old at the time of her marriage to Mohammed.

Child marriages such as Aisha's were relatively common in Bedouin societies at the time of the prophet and remain so in countries such as Yemen and Saudi Arabia among others.

Freedom of Religion and Belief in Egypt

Written by Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights

Fourth Quarterly Report
(October - December 2008)

This report

FRB Quarterly Reports


I. Court rulings and trials

II. Sectarian tension and violence

III. Prosecutions and other security interventions

IV. Laws, decrees, and political developments

V. Reports, publications, and activities


This report
This report addresses several of the most significant developments seen in Egypt in the field of freedom of religion and belief in the months of October, November, and December of 2008. The report observes continued sectarian tension and violence all over Egypt and documents cases in the governorates of Cairo, Alexandria, Qalyoubiya, Sharqiya, Kafr al-Sheikh, Minya, and Luxor. As usual, Minya accounted for the lion’s share of incidents of sectarian violence, with cases in the district of Matay, the village of Kom al-Mahras, and the district of Abu Qurqas, as well as events in the village of al-Tayiba in the Samalut district in October. The latter were the worst of the fourth quarter of 2008, leaving one Christian dead and four other people injured, among them one Muslim. Homes, lands, and property were also torched and damaged.
The report also notes increased tensions and clashes as a result of Copts establishing “service centers” to use for social occasions, prayers, or religious lessons in neighborhoods and villages that have no nearby churches or in cases where Copts have failed to obtain permits to build a new church or renovate an existing church. The report discusses several instances in which the establishment of such centers, or rumors that attempts were being made to convert them into churches, led to sectarian clashes. Events in November in the Ain Shams area of Cairo received the most media coverage in this regard, but two similar incidents took place in the village of Kafr Girgis in the Minya al-Qamh district of Sharqiya and in the al-Iraq village in Alexandria’s al-Amiriya neighborhood.

The report observes the mounting problems resulting from restrictions on the right to change one’s religion, as Muslims who want to convert to Christianity resort to obtaining falsified identification documents. In the period under review, two prison sentences were issued in criminal courts in Giza and Shubra in two separate cases involving Muslim women who had obtained falsified documents allowing them to convert to Christianity and marry Christians. In December, the Cairo airport police arrested a woman and her husband on similar charges while they were attempting to leave the country.

The report documents the ongoing use of the Emergency Law to violate citizens’ basic rights. Blogger Reda Abdel-Rahman was placed under administrative detention for adopting Qur'anist thought, and Christian blogger Hani Nazir remains in detention without charge or trial on the grounds that he allegedly published material insulting to Islam on his blog.

On a positive note, the report documents a legal ruling issued in Cairo allowing a Baha'i youth to return to school at Alexandria University; the university had suspended him when he proved unable to obtain a personal identity card, although his Baha'i religious affiliation is listed on his 1987 birth certificate. Another court ruling allowed a Christian citizen to document his re-conversion to Christianity in his official documents more than 30 years after he converted to Islam. The report also notes that the Fayoum provincial authorities paid financial compensation to Copts harmed in sectarian attacks that took place in June 2008 in the village of al-Nazla, located in the Youssef al-Siddiq district.

FRB Quarterly Reports
The aim of the Freedom of Religion and Belief Quarterly Reports is to provide legislators, policymakers, researchers, the media and other stakeholders with a primary source for documented information on the most significant political, legal, and social developments affecting freedom of religion and belief in Egypt. This report does not offer an analysis of the facts, but only documents them as a basis for further analysis.

In preparing this report the Freedom of Religion and Belief Program of the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (EIPR) relies on field research by program staff, complaints received by the EIPR during the reporting period, information gleaned from news reports and confirmed by researchers, and laws and governmental decrees related to freedom of religion and belief as published in the Official Gazette. This report is not a comprehensive overview of all pertinent developments, but is limited to the facts the report’s authors view as most significant and were able to confirm.

Yara Sallam, researcher for the Freedom of Religion and Belief Program, compiled and researched the information contained in the report. Nader Shukri assisted in monitoring and documentation. Research assistance and legal review was provided by Adel Ramadan, Legal Officer of the FRB Program. Hossam Bahgat, Executive Director of the EIPR, reviewed and edited the report.

I. Court rulings and trials

1. On 12 October 2008, the Giza Criminal Court sentenced five people, among them a Christian priest, to five years in prison each on charges related to the falsifying of official documents. The court began hearing the case (no. 4829/2007 Criminal- Qesm Imbaba) in June 2008, after the defendants were charged with helping a Muslim woman obtain falsified identification documents proving that she had converted to Christianity, in order to enable her to marry a Christian man in 2005. These falsified documents were used to draw up a marriage contract and obtain a passport, which the woman used to travel to Jordan with her husband (see paragraph 8 of the Second Quarterly Report, 2008)

The verdict was issued in absentia for all the defendants (including the married couple), except for the priest, Mata'os Abbas Wahba, who is currently serving his sentence in the Tora Prison on the outskirts of Cairo.

After the sentencing, several newspapers reported that Pope Shenouda III had criticized the verdict and they quoted him expressing his “strong displeasure” at the sentencing of the priest. He also announced that he had hired an attorney to appeal the ruling. On 15 November 2008, attorney Ramsis al-Naggar appealed the ruling with the Court of Cassation (case no. 220/2008). The court had not set a date for the appeal hearing before this report was issued.

2. In a similar case, the Shubra Criminal Court on 11 November 2008 sentenced three people to three years in prison each (case no. 12201/2006 Criminal -Northern Cairo -Shubra). The court convicted the three defendants for helping a Muslim woman obtain a national identity card containing falsified information in 2002 to facilitate her marriage to a Christian. The defendants also served as witnesses on the marriage contract with the false information (see paragraph 8 of the First Quarterly Report, 2008).

On 17 January 2008, the court had issued a ruling in the same case in absentia, sentencing the three defendants and the fugitive couple to ten years each in prison. The re-trial began on 12 February with the attendance of the three defendants, who are currently serving their sentence in the Marg General Prison. The defendants’ attorneys appealed the ruling before the Court of Cassation, but a date for the appeal hearing had not been set before this report was issued.

3. On 11 November 2008, the Court of Administrative Justice in Cairo, headed by Judge Mohamed Ahmad Atiya, issued a ruling requiring the Civil Status Department in the Interior Ministry to issue a national identity card to Baha'i citizen Hadi Hosny al-Qusheiry and place a dash (—) in the slot designated for religious affiliation. The EIPR had filed a suit (case no. 14124/62) in January 2008 after al-Qusheiry 21, was suspended from the College of Agriculture at Alexandria University, where he was registered as a third-year student. The university suspended the student when he failed to provide deferment papers for his compulsory military service. Meanwhile, the Ministry of Defense refused to issue the papers because the student did not have a national identity card, and since the student had a birth certificate documenting that he was born to Egyptian Baha'i parents, the Civil Status Department refused to issue him an identity card if he did not change his religion to either Islam or Christianity.

The same court, headed by its former chief judge, Mohamed al-Husseini, issued two similar rulings on 29 January 2008, affirming for the first time the right of Baha'i citizens to obtain official identification documents without mention of religious affiliation. The Interior Ministry had not implemented these rulings before this report was issued in January 2009 (see paragraph 1 of the First Quarterly Report, 2008).

4. The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights decided in its biannual session, held in Abuja, Nigeria from 10 to 24 November 2008, to consider a complaint filed against the Egyptian government regarding the case of two Egyptian children, Mario and Andrew Ramsis. After their father converted to Islam, the children’s religion was changed from Christianity to Islam and their Christian mother lost custody of them. The complaint (no. 363/2008), filed before the African Union's main human rights body, accuses the Egyptian government of violating four articles of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, which was ratified by the Egyptian government and the People’s Assembly in 1984. The children’s mother, Kamilia Lotfy, was a victim of religious discrimination (Article 2) and her right to equal protection under the law (Article 3) was also violated when she was deprived of custody of her twin sons. The petition also accuses the government of violating the children’s right to freedom of religion and belief (Article 8) and its obligation to respect the rights of children (Article 18.3). The Commission accepted the petition and will begin hearing the case in its next session in May 2009; the complainants and the Egyptian government must file their preliminary briefs before 8 March 2009. The suit was filed by the EIPR and the London-based INTERIGHTS- International Center for the Legal Protection of Human Rights.

On 24 September 2008, the Alexandria Appellate Court issued a final ruling transferring custody of Mario and Andrew (both aged 14) to their father, who had converted to Islam in 2000 and changed his children’s religion on their official documents in 2006. The court based its ruling on an interpretation of the principles of Islamic law, although Article 20 of the Personal Status Law states that children should remain in the custody of their mother until the age of 15 and contains no reference to the mother’s religion (see paragraph 8 of the Third Quarterly Report, 2008). On 5 November 2008, the children’s mother filed a request with the Public Prosecutor (no. 18308/2008) asking him to appeal the custody ruling. No action had been taken before this report was issued.

5. On 29 November 2008, the Public Prosecutor issued a temporary injunction against the three-year prison sentence handed down to Bahiya al-Sisi, who was convicted of knowingly using falsified documents, pending an appeal before the Court of Cassation. The Shubra al-Kheima Criminal Court issued the prison sentence on 20 September 2008 (case no. 14223/1996) after Bahiya al-Sisi was convicted of obtaining a personal identity card in 1994 that documented her religion as Christianity, although her father had converted to Islam in 1994 (see paragraph 7 of the Third Quarterly Report, 2008).

After Bahiya al-Sisi was released, the Public Prosecutor appealed the ruling before the Court of Cassation on 24 December 2008. Al-Sisi’s attorney filed a similar appeal on 13 November 2008. No date had been set to hear the appeal before this report was issued.

Egyptians against Religious Discrimination, a group of volunteer activists working on religious tolerance, issued a statement in solidarity with Bahiya al-Sisi on 5 November calling on the Public Prosecutor to suspend her prison sentence pending the appeal before the Court of Cassation.

6. On 18 December 2008, the Court of Administrative Justice in Alexandria ruled that Fathi Labib Youssef had the right to obtain a personal identity card documenting his re-conversion to Christianity from Islam. The plaintiff filed his case (no. 2293/60) in November 2005 against the Prime Minister, the Interior Minister, and the head of the Civil Status Department, asking that a decree refusing to recognize his change of religion be overturned. Youssef converted from Christianity to Islam in 1974 and then re-converted to Christianity in May 2005 following the approval of the clerical council of the Coptic Orthodox Church.

In its written ruling, the court referred to the obligation to recognize equal rights and duties for all citizens and the prohibition against discrimination on the basis of religion or creed. The court reasoned that ruling otherwise would violate the constitutionally guaranteed principle of freedom of belief. It added that the Civil Status Department must document any change to a citizen’s civil status on his personal identity card, as long as the change is supported by a document issued by the competent authority, so that the identity card faithfully express a citizen’s true civil status.

On 9 February 2008, the Supreme Administrative Court, headed by Judge al-Sayid Noufal, ruled for the first time in favor of 12 Christian citizens seeking personal identity cards that document their re-conversion to Christianity from Islam (see paragraph 2 of the First Quarterly Report, 2008), but as of January 2009 the Interior Ministry had not yet implemented any of these rulings. The Supreme Constitutional Court is currently hearing a case (no. 92/30) referred to it by the Court of Administrative Justice in Cairo, which is seeking a ruling on the constitutionality of Article 47 of the Civil Status Law. That article allows citizens to change their religion on official documents without restriction (see paragraph 3, First Quarterly Report and paragraph 3, Third Quarterly Report, 2008).

7. The daily al-Ahram reported on 29 December 2008 that the Cairo Personal Status Appellate Court issued an unprecedented ruling “in favor of a Christian woman’s right to custody of her Muslim children as long as the Muslim father knew she was of the Christian faith when they married.” According to the newspaper, the court “gave custody of an Egyptian child to his French mother, arguing that the Child Law states that the protection and best interest of the child takes precedence in all decisions regarding childhood.” The text of the ruling was not available when this report was issued.

II. Sectarian tension and violence

8. On the evening of 3 October 2008, sectarian violence erupted in the village of al-Tayiba, located in the Samalut district of Minya. The violence left one Christian dead and four people injured (among them one Muslim), and homes, lands, and property were torched and vandalized.

Information collected by EIPR researchers indicates that the incident began when a fight broke out between a Muslim and Christian resident of the Christian-majority village. It is likely that the dispute was sparked when a Muslim youth harassed a Christian girl, after which the girl’s brother intervened to defend her. This is the story supported by the police and the prosecutor’s office. Information also indicates that the harassment took place amid existing sectarian tensions in the village as a result of a local Copt’s intention to sell his home in a predominantly Coptic quarter to a Muslim, to which his Coptic neighbors object.

As the dispute evolved, several Muslims broke into the home of the Christian whose sister was harassed. Most of the contents of his home, as well as his adjacent carpentry workshop and a wood storehouse, were stolen or vandalized, and both were set on fire. Following this assault, a large number of Copts assembled and headed toward the burning house in the eastern part of the village. Muslims began firing live ammunition at them to disperse them and the Copts responded by throwing stones at Muslim homes. Eyewitnesses said that the Copts were not armed, and a police source said that investigations had turned up no evidence that the Copts had used firearms during the events in question.

Coptic eyewitnesses said that they called security forces, which came to the village, but were unable to enter the scene of the events until some two hours had passed because of ongoing heavy gunfire. As soon as the security forces arrived, they threw teargas grenades to disperse the assembled Copts. One eyewitness said that a police officer beat those assembled with a club in order to disperse them and send them to their homes. This prompted Coptic youths to run from the teargas and police forces to the western part of the village, home to several Muslims. Testimonies obtained by EIPR researchers indicate that some Coptic youths, motivated by revenge, attempted to break into the home of a Muslim in the village, leading a neighbor to randomly open fire. Yeshua Gamal Nashed was shot in the face and died shortly thereafter.

Medical sources at the Samalut General Hospital, located 12 km from al-Tayiba, where the injured were taken for treatment, said that Yeshua Gamal, 25, reached the hospital near death and died about 15 minutes later as a result of a gunshot to the forehead. The hospital also admitted three Copts from the village—Michael Samuel, Philip Ramzi, and Ibram Musa—who were injured by BB pellets, which, when fired at close range, can cause deep tear wounds. They were released from the hospital after treatment. The fourth wounded man, Mahmoud Subhi, reached the Samalut hospital with a head injury, sustained by a blow to the head with a club during the events. He was transferred to the Minya University Hospital. After the incident, the EIPR received reports that crops owned by village Copts were intentionally burned and destroyed on Sunday night, 5 October 2008.

Village residents say that after the events, the police made random arrests of nearly 40 Muslim and Coptic youths, who were released in groups in the following days. The police also arrested Gamal Selim Abd el-Hakim, who was accused of murder by the family of Yeshua Gamal. On 28 December 2008, a Samalut court released him on bail pending a trial on charges of murder. Relatives of the defendant, however, told EIPR researchers that after the prosecutor’s office released him, he was placed under administrative detention using the Emergency Law and was taken to the Liman Abu Za'bal facility.

9. On 6 October 2008, a Christian youth in the Amiriya area of Cairo used an automatic weapon to open fire on his sister’s family. His sister had converted to Islam two years earlier, married a Muslim man, and had a ten-month-old daughter. The Muslim husband died in the assault and the child was injured; the sister of the killer was injured in her left arm, which was later amputated. The police arrested the youth and his uncle, who helped him commit the crime. Their trial before a criminal court is expected to begin in February 2009. A heavy security presence was visible in the Amiriya area for nearly a month after the assault, in anticipation of revenge attacks against Copts.

10. The village of Sila al-Gharbiya, located in the Matay district of Minya, was the site of mutual attacks between Muslims and Christians on 14 October 2008, which left one Muslim and three Christians, including a nine-year-old child, injured. An eyewitness in the village told EIPR researchers that a dispute erupted between a Christian liquor store owner and a Muslim customer, which ultimately led to several Muslims and Christians throwing stones from the roofs of houses. After the incident, the police arrested some 25 residents of the village, all of whom were released following a traditional reconciliation between the parties to the dispute.

11. On 19 October 2008, five Copts assaulted members of a Muslim family in the district of Sidi Salem in the Kafr al-Sheikh governorate after rumors spread that a Coptic girl from their family had run away with a member of the Muslim family. The level of sectarian tension increased after the fight, when it was rumored that a Muslim youth had disappeared and that Copts were responsible for it. The police found the Muslim youth and arrested four Copts and two Muslims, all of whom were released a few days later. A church source in the area told EIPR researchers that the girl had converted to Islam and married a Muslim. He added that State Security officers banished the five Copts from the village and prohibited them from returning until a traditional reconciliation session was held between the two families. EIPR researchers learned that the five returned to the village during the first week of January 2009.

12. On 26 October 2008, there was violence between Muslims and Copts in the predominantly Christian village of Kom al-Mahras in the Abu Qurqas district of Minya. The violence left six people injured on both sides, according to statements made by the director of the al-Fikriya District Hospital to EIPR researchers. Information indicates that a fight broke out between a Muslim and Christian, both teenagers, after which dozens of Muslims and Christians gathered and fought with clubs and rocks, leading to the aforementioned injuries and damage to a storehouse owned by a Copt. When security forces arrived on the scene, they detained five Muslims and three Christians. The Abu Qurqas prosecutor’s office ordered their release three days after the parties held a traditional reconciliation.

A source who resides in the village (and asked to remain anonymous) told EIPR researchers that the clashes took place amid heightened tensions between Muslims and Christians after the Mar Mina church in the village obtained a renovation permit and work began on bathrooms and a service center for the church.

13. On 5 November 2008, several Copts who live in Mit Nama in the Shubra al-Kheima area of the Qalyoubiya governorate staged a protest in front of the Orthodox Patriarchate in Abbasiya after a Muslim, at dawn that same morning, appropriated a plot of land in the village that belongs to the Shubra al-Kheima archbishopric and built a fence around it. A church source in the area told EIPR researchers that the church had bought the plot of land on 9 January 2002, and completed the official measures needed to build a service center on it. There is no church in the village to serve the more than 500 Christian families, and the nearest church is four km away. The source said that State Security had refused to give Copts a permit for the establishment of the building on three separate occasions, the last on 27 October 2008, citing “security concerns.” The source said that the same person who appropriated the land demolished the fence on 6 November 2008, and returned the land to the church after the intervention of several official and security agencies. Nevertheless, the problem of the building permit remains unresolved.

14. On 23 November 2008, sectarian tensions in the Ain Shams area of Cairo led to clashes between a group of Muslims and security forces and an attack on a building used by Christians in the area for prayer.

A priest in the area told EIPR researchers that the Coptic Church had bought the building about six years ago and transformed it from an underwear factory to a service center; he said that the church intended to hold prayers inside the building for the first time the day of the attack. Coptic eyewitnesses said that that morning several Muslims from the area had hung loudspeakers on the opposite building and broadcast Qur'anic verses. Unconfirmed reports indicate that the loudspeakers were later used to call Muslims to a demonstration to protest the Copts’ intention to turn the building into a church. By evening time, hundreds of area Muslims had gathered outside the church and started chanting anti-Coptic slogans, and some threw stones at the building, breaking several windows. Press reports said that 13 Copts inside the church were injured by the stone throwing. Eyewitnesses added that security forces on the scene decided to intervene to disperse those assembled about four hours after they began to congregate. Demonstrators clashed with security forces and, according to press reports, several soldiers were injured. The clashes continued until midnight, when the police managed to help the Copts surrounded in the building to leave.

The police filed a report about the incident (no. 3196/2008 Matariya misdemeanors) and arrested five Muslims and three Copts on charges of unlawful assembly, disturbing the peace, damaging two cars, and injuring police personnel. All the detainees were released pending investigations on 27 November 2008. After the events, church officials said that they had stopped using the building for any purpose, fearing further attacks.

15. Copts in the Izbat al-Nakhl area of Ain Shams in Cairo were assaulted on the evening of 23 November 2008, when a Muslim man on a motorcycle attacked a group of Copts who were leaving a wedding at a church. According to a testimony given to EIPR researchers by one Copt, the incident evolved into a fight with a group of Muslims armed with knives. At least four Copts were injured, and there are indications that five or six others sustained light wounds that they did not report to the police. Two cars owned by Copts were also damaged. The EIPR learned that the Matariya police station filed a police report about the incident (no. 30195/2008) and arrested three Muslims and four Copts and referred them to the prosecutor’s office, which released them within a week.

16. On 9 December 2008, a bus belonging to a Cairo church was pelted with stones on the road leading to the All Saints’ Monastery in al-Tud, located in Luxor. Father Sarabamun al-Shayib, an official at the monastery, told EIPR researchers that the bus, owned by the Mar Girgis Church in Cairo, was on its way to the monastery when several “Muslim boys and youths” threw stones at it, breaking some windows on the bus and injuring a child among the passengers. He said that he had complained to security several times regarding similar assaults on visitors and priests with the monastery by residents of adjacent villages. He added that following the most recent attack Luxor security forces had secured the road leading to the monastery.

17. On the evening of 10 December 2008, hundreds of Muslims from the village of Kafr Farag Girgis, located in the Minya al-Qamh district of Sharqiya, gathered to protest village Copts conducting prayers for the first time inside a new service center. A church source told EIPR researchers that security intervened to disperse the crowd and closed the four-story building, sitting on a 200-meter plot of land, while also posting six guards to ensure that it remained closed. The source said that village Copts, who number 1,500, have been praying in a service center no bigger than 100 meters for decades and decided to establish another building. Since 1996 they have tried and failed to obtain a permit to renovate and expand the old structure, built in 1936, which has become in dilapidated conditions due to time and the effects of groundwater.

18. In mid-December 2008, the governorate of Fayoum and the Fayoum archbishopric dispensed compensation of LE100,000 (with equal contributions from both parties) to Copts harmed in the sectarian attacks that took place six months ago in the village of al-Nazla, located in the Youssef al-Siddiq district of Fayoum. On 20 June 2008, hundreds of Muslims in the village had attacked Coptic property and homes following rumors that the wife of a village Muslim, who had converted from Christianity to Islam two years earlier, had been kidnapped with her ten-month-old son by her Christian family in Cairo. During the ensuing attacks, several stores owned by village Copts were damaged, their contents stolen or destroyed; several homes were raided and looted; some homes and stores were torched; a car was smashed; the facade of the village church was damaged by stone-throwing; and the car of the church priest was vandalized (see paragraph 12 of the Second Quarterly Report, 2008).

Some of the victims told EIPR researchers that the total compensation covers no more than one-fourth the value of the losses. One victim added that the sum offered to him was so paltry he refused to take it. Nevertheless, the victims said that the value of the compensation lies in its symbolic effect, not its equivalence to the material damages.

19. On 25 December 2008, hundreds of Muslims from the al-Iraq village in Alexandria’s al-Amiriya area assembled outside the home of a Copt to protest his intention to turn a structure built on his private land into a church for village Copts. The owner of the land told EIPR researchers that the building belongs to the Association for Coptic Orthodox Reform in Alexandria, which is registered with the Ministry of Social Solidarity. The 80 Coptic families in the village want to use the structure as a place for prayer and religious lessons since the nearest church is located 50 km away in the King Maryout area. The landowner added that he refused to acquiesce to a demand from the protesters that he sign a customary affidavit declaring that “the building is not a church and will not be used for prayer.” He said that the assembled Muslims left when security forces arrived. Security also closed the building and posted a security detail outside it.

III. Prosecutions and other security interventions

20. On 3 October 2008, Hani Nazir Aziz turned himself in to the police at the Abu Tisht station in the Qena governorate. Reports in the press and online stated that Hani Nazir, a blogger and social worker at a school, found the police were looking for him in connection with rumors spreading in the village of al-'Aila in the Abu Tisht district that he had published material insulting to Islam on his blog. The reports added that he decided to turn himself in after the police detained his sister for three days to compel him to surrender. Father Kyrillos, the bishop of Naga' Hamadi, told EIPR researchers that a release order was issued for the blogger in late November 2008, but he remained in detention when this report was published in January 2009.

21. On 18 October 2008, the State Security Investigation office in Fayoum summoned three Christians with the evangelical community (two men and one woman) for questioning after receiving complaints from their neighbors and the guard of the building in which they live that they were placing Christian religious publications, flyers, and tapes in front of some of the apartments in the building. A source in the evangelical church told EIPR researchers that the three had been questioned for nearly three hours and released the same day.

22. At dawn on 27 October 2008, State Security Investigation officers in the governorate of Sharqiya arrested blogger Reda Abdel-Rahman due to his adoption of Qur'anist thought and his expression of it on his blog, Justice Freedom Peace. Police officers raided the blogger’s home in the village of Abu Hereiz, located in the Kafr Saqr district of Sharqiya, and confiscated his personal computer and several books, CDs, and cassette tapes before taking him to an unknown location. On 29 October 2008, lawyers with the EIPR filed a complaint with the Public Prosecutor (no. 17973/2008) asking that the detainee’s location be disclosed and his family and attorney be allowed to visit him. The Interior Ministry then moved the blogger to the Tora Prison pursuant to an administrative detention order issued under the Emergency Law.

On 14 December 2008, a Supreme State Security Emergency Court issued an order ending Reda Abdel-Rahman’s detention after a petition filed by the EIPR (no. 4823/2008). The Interior Ministry contested the decision, but the court rejected the appeal on 6 January 2009 and upheld its previous decision to release the detainee.

The detained blogger was questioned by the State Security prosecutor while in administrative detention, and on 6 December 2008, the prosecutor charged him with "contempt of Islam" after questioning him about his religious beliefs and opinions, his faith in the Prophetic Sunna, and his manner of praying. The blogger was also questioned on 8 January 2009, after which the prosecutor ordered his release. Nevertheless, he was still unlawfully detained at the State Security complex in Zagazig when this report was published in mid-January.

The blogger, 32, is a social worker at a preparatory school run by al-Azhar. On his blog, in July 2008, he said that he had been summoned for questioning by the Azhar legal affairs office about articles he had published online. He said he was pressured and threatened to compel him to sign an affidavit pledging “not to publish any articles on the internet or any religious writings.”

23. On 13 December 2008, Cairo airport police arrested Martha Samuel and her husband, Fadl Thabet, as they attempted to travel to Russia, after police officers discovered that Samuel’s real name was Zeinab Said Abdel -Aziz and that she had falsified her personal identity card to show that she had converted to Christianity, and later married a Christian and obtained a passport using the falsified information. The same day, the police also arrested two administrative employees at the Murqusiya Church in Alexandria on charges of helping her obtain the falsified documents.

The Nuzha prosecutor’s office ordered the release of the defendant’s husband on 12 December 2008, but EIPR researchers received information indicating that he is still being detained in the Sidi Gaber police station in Alexandria and that he had been questioned by State Security Investigations officers in Alexandria more than once. The other three defendants were still in custody when this report was published.

IV. Laws, decrees, and political developments

24. In the months of October, November, and December 2008, EIPR researchers documented the issuance of seven presidential decrees regarding churches, all of which concerned the renovation of existing churches. The details are as follows:

a. Decree 301/2008, 9 October 2008, for the evangelical community at the existing Nahdat al-Qadasa Church, located in al-Uqal al-Bahari, al-Badari district, Assyout governorate.

b. Decree 317/2008, 26 October, 2008, for the Coptic Orthodox community at the existing Archangel Michael Monastery, located in Naga al-Deir in the village of Awlad Yehya Bahari, Dar al-Salam district, Sohag governorate.

c. Decree 327/2008, 8 November 2008, for the Catholic Coptic community at the existing Church of the Virgin, located in al-Qatna, Tama district, Sohag governorate.

d. Decree 342/2008, 27 November 2008, for the evangelical community at the existing al-Balimuth Brothers Church, located in al-Tataliya, al-Qusiya district, Assyout governorate.

e. Decree 343/2008, 27 November 2008, for the Catholic Coptic community at the existing Church of the Virgin, located in al-Rahibat street, Sadafa district, Assyout governorate,

f. Decree 366/2008, 23 December 2008, for the evangelical community at the existing al-Rusuliya Church, located in Admu, Minya district, Minya governorate.

g. Decree 367/2008, 23 December 2008, for the evangelical community at the existing al-Ikhwa al-Murahhibin Church, located in al-Nekheila, Abu Tig district, Assyout governorate.

25. On 11 October 2008, the Interior Minister issued Decree 1814/2008, approving the election of the following people to the General Evangelical Council for an eight-year term, starting on 15 June 2008, and ending on 14 June 2016, to replace members of the council whose term had expired:

A. Elder Samir Gaballah Matta, for the Delta Presbytery;

B. Dr. Nagi Helmi Rizqallah, for Mallawi Presbytery;

C. Dr. Hilmi Samuel Azer, for Assyout Presbytery; and

D. Pastor Dawoud Ibrahim Nasr, for Sohag and the upper regions' Presbyteries.

26. On 16 November 2008, the Interior Minister issued a decree appointing Ms. Eva Habil Kyrillos to the position of mayor in the village of Kom Buha, located in the Dayrut district of Assyout, for a term of five years. This is the first time that a Christian woman has been appointed mayor.

27. The daily independent al-Masry al-Youm reported on 30 October 2008 statements made by Minister of Culture Farouq Hosni during his meeting with members of the British Egyptian Business Association on 28 October during which he stressed the need to accept “earthly religions [al-adyaan al-ardiyya]” as part of the exercise of freedom of belief. The term is used normally to refer to religions or beliefs other than Islam, Christianity or Judaism. On 2 November 2008, the website of the Muslim Brothers reported that MP Abdel-Fattah Eid, a member of the Muslim Brotherhood's parliamentary bloc, intended to file an urgent question for the Prime Minister and the Culture Minister, asking them to explain these remarks, which, they said, “contradict the established principles and traditions of the nation and the customs of the people.”

28. On 20 November 2008, local authorities in Alexandria demolished a service center in the King Maryout area in Alexandria belonging to the Abu Seifein Orthodox Church. The church’s attorney, Joseph Malak, told EIPR researchers that the demolition was carried out pursuant to a demolition order issued on the grounds that the building was constructed without a permit. But the attorney said that the church had bought the land upon which the structure was built from a Christian, who had purchased it from the Maryout Agricultural Company, and that the church had built the service center after informing the security authorities, for use as a home for the elderly and orphans. The attorney added that the church had appealed the demolition order before the Alexandria Court of Administrative Justice as soon as it was issued (no. 6228/63), but local authorities demolished the building while the suit was still pending.

29. On 17 December 2008, the Nahdat al-Qadasa Church in the village of al-Muti'a, located in the Assyout district of Assyout, collapsed. Pastor Amgad Khalil, the supervisor of the Nahdat al-Qadasa churches in the governorate of Assyout, told EIPR researchers that the two-story church, which served nearly 200 Christian families, had not been renovated since it was built in 1930. For the last four years, he had tried unsuccessfully to obtain permission from the competent authorities

V. Reports, publications, and activities

30. The "First Conference of Coptic Organizations in Europe" was held on 8 November 2008, in Paris, with associations from France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, Greece, Ireland, Hungary, Germany, and Sweden in attendance. The conference issued a declaration titled "Establishment of the European Union of Coptic Organizations for Human Rights". The declaration elaborated the objectives of the federation, including working to achieve “four requirements for the protection of the Copts: protection of the physical existence of Copts, as stated in the Convention on the Prevention of Genocide; the prevention of the Copts' forced population transfers; the prevention of cultural annihilation of Copts; and the abandonment of the culture of genocide.”

31. On 5 December 2008, the Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies issued its first annual report, titled From Exporting Terrorism to Exporting Repression: Human Rights in the Arab Region. In the chapter on Egypt, the report devotes a special section to freedom of belief and minority rights, which refers to the arrest of Qur'anists in May 2008 and the problems faced by Christians who converted to Islam and wish to return to Christianity, as well as the court ruling issued in their favor in February 2008. The report also addresses the difficulties faced by Baha'is due to the refusal of the Civil Status Department to issue personal identification documents until they change their religion to one of the three recognized religions of Islam, Christianity, or Judaism, despite a court ruling issued in January 2008 that allows the slot for religious affiliation to be left blank or noted with a dash (—). The report discussed discrimination against Copts in Egypt in areas such as the construction of houses of worship, jobs, and academic curricula, and it cited the attack on the Abu Fana Monastery as an example of how the law is disregarded when resolving sectarian crises.